The Globalization - the Concept

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What is the concept of the globalization? What do we mean by the physical and non-physical/human globalization? What are the forces affecting the globalization?

1. The Introduction:

The word "globalization" simply means anything becoming the global. It can further be defined as the process involved in any local phenomenon metamorphosing into a global one. There is a progression either sequential or abrupt of a movement from the local space to the global space.

A. The Meaning:

The integration of any aspect of the local human lives like the economies into the greater global lives like the global economy may safely be called the globalization.

B. The Description:

From the geographical perspective, the process, the phenomenon or the movement of the globalization can broadly be divided into the following two types:

1. The Physical.

2. The Non-physical/Human

1. The Physical Globalization:

This involves the movement of the physical entities from one space point across to another space point on the globe. In other words, it is a spatial spread over the earth of such physical entities as the continent, etc. It can take place on, above or beneath the surface of the earth. It has been continuing since aeons. For example, the Pangae broke into numerous parts which in turn became global in movement and started moving towards different global space points.

2. The Non-Physical/Human Globalization:

This simply means the globalization of any human phenomenon like the social, the economic, the political, etc.

The Forces:

A. The External:

The external forces may cause the globalization to be accepted by any political area such as a nation-State. For example, in the case of the economic globalization, the international pressure put by more developing countries through numerous international instruments like the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other various forms of the international assistance. This forces a country to restructure its economy and jump into the international mainstream of the globalization.

B. The Internal:

The Internal forces may compel a political area to agree to the globalization. For example, in the case of the economic globalization, these forces include the deteriorating internal economic situation and the Balance-Of-Payment (BOP) crisis on account of the huge international trade deficit.

For example, India initiated the economic reforms in 1991 leading to its being a part of the globalization.

Some economists opined that the external pressure from the GATT/WTO was responsible for it.

A second group contended that it was not the GATT/WTO pressure, but the desire to increase the consumer welfare and reduce the inefficiency of the home producers that actually made India embrace globalism.

However, to my mind the harsh truth is that India had an unfavourable Balance-Of-Payment (BOP) situation in 1991 reflected in the Chandrashekhar government mortgaging to the Bank of London many tons of the gold that in reality had encouraged, convinced, persuaded and forced India to accept the globalization so as to earn the sufficient foreign exchange through an increased access to the world markets in return for opening to the foreigners the Indian markets.

This third line of thinking was pointed out probably for the first time in the second edition of my book titled "Geography, Economics and Economic Geography" published in the year 2003.

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